D - Inversión y Recupero de un Programa de Gestión de la Innovación
Oscar Isoba / Martes 4 de marzo de 2008
Inversión y Recupero de un Programa de Gestión de la Innovación
En forma regular me invitan a empresas para hablar sobre TRIZ: Teoría de la Resolución Inventiva de problemas, ó para investigar si lo que se invierte en el desarrollo de Mejoras ó Innovaciones a un Proceso/Producto/Servicio es aceptable, desde el punto de vista Contable ó se está fuera de los Estándares Internacionales.
Esto se conoce en las empresas como ROI (Return on Investment: Retorno de la Inversión), es decir si invierto una cierta cantidad de dinero y espero un cierto beneficio por ese dinero, que valor de ROI tendrá.
El ROI es el ahorro ó los beneficios dividido por el costo de la Inversión para lograr dichos beneficios.
Un ROI mayor a 2 en un plazo razonable entre uno y dos años, es ampliamente aprobado para las inversiones de 0,5 a 6 millones de dólares, en la mayoría de las empresas manufactureras. En otro tipo de empresas varía no demasiado.
Un ROI mayor de cuatro en uno a dos años es excelente y ROI menores a 1,5 deben estudiarse con mayores detalles si se justifica la inversión.
Las inversiones en el desarrollo de los Productos y los beneficios ó ahorros cuentan con herramientas ingenieriles de cálculo bastante aproximado, sino exacto.
Pero como estimar el ROI de las mejoras, Innovaciones ó aún Invenciones de algo que está solo en papeles. Esto se denomina también ROI Retorno ’de la Innovación
Lo que respondo sobre el ROI y su estimación es lo siguiente: Estimativamente en empresas medianamente organizadas puede esperarse como promedio una idea por usuario por mes, lo que hace un total de 10 a 12 ideas anuales en EEUU.
Esto asombra a algunos directivos, que calculan que con 200 puestos laborales? ¿Cómo se hace para manejar 2000 ideas/año? Son tantas las ideas y sugerencias?
Implementar una cultura Innovativa junto con la gestión del Conocimiento requiere una importante inversión, la menor inversión está en el software adecuado (20%)y la mayor inversión está en el costo de tiempos de empleados/directivos (80%).
En el peor escenario, el cambio será desde una empresa de gestión jerárquica, donde las decisiones solo vienen de los directivos, hasta una empresa con cultura innovativa, donde se reparten y comparten las ideas y sugerencias y la Norma es el Conocimiento Compartido.
Solo las empresas que comparten el Conocimiento y realizan reuniones de pronósticos de ventas, de Producción, etc.y tienen buzones de sugerencias ó un plan de mejoras continuo, pueden darse cuenta del potencial de las buenas ideas.
Entonces la primer Inversión es al iniciar un programa (interno a la empresa) de Gestión de la innovación y la inversión promedio a nivel mundial es de 10 dólares por empleado por año.
Al mismo tiempo en forma solapada está la segunda Inversión, que es el sistema de gestión de las ideas, con el software adecuado, los servidores, licencias de los programas, personal de Tecnología de la Información.
Una alternativa que yo recomiendo en empresas PyMes y aunque medianas, es tercerizar el equipamiento y el mantenimiento del sistema de gestión de ideas por una cuota mensual, para minimizar en equipos, personal y espacio de oficinas.
Esto comienza en 350 a 550 dólares por usuario por año en más, con acceso vía Internet e incluso con soporte de clasificación de ideas, para empresas medianas.
El tiempo de cada usuario en desarrollar la idea y enviarla al sistema de gestión de ideas, es muy variable pero un promedio en EEUU y México es de una hora.
La verificación inicial de ideas, el rechazo y el envío a los expertos de las ideas interesantes lleva como promedio de 1 a 20 minutos, e incluye las preguntas ó aclaraciones a la idea propuesta.
Este sistema de verificación, rechazo, aclaraciones, filtrado y análisis TRIZ de ideas es preferible tercerizarlo, ya que se dispone de mayor objetividad, rapidez y calidad del Servicio. Además suele ser un servicio critico que requiere personal idóneo y full time.
Entonces una empresa manufacturera con 200 puestos laborales, que generen 10 ideas por empleado por año, con un costo de 40 dólares por hora por empleado/directivo y de 100 dólares por hora por experto, tendrá anualmente un costo de:
Programa de gestión de Innovaciones 2000 dolares/año
Costo anual gestión del Conocimiento 472000 dólares para 2000 ideas / año
DaimlerChrysler Brasil con 5000 empleados indicó que en el periodo 2004 su Programa y Sistema de gestión / evaluación de ideas generó 50000 ideas con un ahorro de 50 millones de dólares.
En nuestro ejemplo con 2000 ideas/año se tendrá un ahorro de 2400000 dolares/año. Y el ROI será de 2400000 dólares dividido 462000 dólares, o sea ROI igual a 5
Una PyME con 100 empleados del ramo del calzado argentino indicó que en el 2005 su Programa y Sistema de gestión / evaluación de ideas generó 10000 ideas con un beneficio de 13 millones de dólares.
Un buen programa de gestión de la Innovación genera un excelente ROI y no tiene sustituto. Al igual que la experiencia, la Creatividad y la Innovación no tienen sustitutos.
Hay que decir que los beneficios y ahorros producen sus mayores valores entre el tercer y quinto año de implementado el Programa de Gestión de innovaciones.
Finalmente, a técnica del Six Sigma le dirá que optimizar y el TRIZ le dirá Como hacerlo.
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